However, this climate is conditioned by a series of factors that give it its own personality. These factors are, on the one hand, geographical or static factors such as latitude, at the southern end of the Peninsula, relief, which explains the rainfall regime and strong winds, and finally, the influence of the sea, due to its effect thermoregulatory climate. On the other hand we have the dynamic factors, which depend on the general dynamics of the atmosphere of the area, and they explain the seasonal rhythms and the types of weather that are generated in the province, these being intimately related to the masses of atmospheric air that they govern the climate of Cadiz, such as the Azores anticyclone, the continental tropical air masses, the polar maritime air masses, the Atlantic-Mediterranean front and the Euro-African front.
The climatological year is divided into two major seasons: one warm and the other warm. The winter extends from November to April, and is characterized by very mild temperatures, moderate rainfall and high insolation. In summer, the generation of a zone of low pressures caused by the displacement of high subtropical pressures dominant in winter, causes the emergence of wind regimes of different origins and intensities (west and east). In addition, the Saharan dryness that ascends latitudinally comes to affect the province at this time.
The temperature regime in the province of Cádiz is characterized mainly by its mild and moderate character.
Spatial variations are mainly due to geographical features such as the elevation above sea level and the influence of the sea. Thus, the highest values of the annual average temperature correspond to the coastal areas and the westernmost part of the Campiña de Jerez. On the other hand, the lower values are logically located in the high areas of the mountainous areas of the provincial Northeast.
Regarding the temporal distribution of temperatures throughout the year, the absence of extreme values stands out, with mild winters and hot summers, although softened by the influence of the sea. The coldest months are December and January, in which the average temperatures are not excessively low, above 10ºC for most of the territory, except for the highest areas of the Sierra de Cádiz, where they become below 8ºC.
The months of July and August are the warmest months, with average temperatures between 24 and 26ºC. The upper values correspond to the interior areas of the Campiña de Jerez, the lowest being those corresponding to the Sierra de Cádiz region.
In absolute terms, the maximum temperature can exceed 40ºC in the interior zone of the countryside, and the minimum, located in the Sierra de Cádiz, can be less than -2ºC.
The average annual rainfall in most of the province of Cádiz is greater than 600 mm, although it should be noted that in some areas of the Sierra de Grazalema more than 2,000 mm are exceeded, due to its orographic and geographical peculiarities, while in the westernmost area of the province scarcely exceeds 500 mm of rainfall.
The geographical distribution of the precipitations shows very unequal values, in close relation with the relief, presenting a very marked East-West gradient. The saw, generally oriented in a North-South direction, is an obstacle to the wet air masses of the west and east that, when rising, undergo cooling and condensation, leading to intense rainfall. In this aspect it is necessary to emphasize, that in the Mountain range of Grazalema the maximum precipitations of the Iberian Peninsula are collected many years.
Throughout the year, the rains are concentrated mainly at the end of autumn and in winter, with decreases in the spring and a marked drought in the summer period.
The wind is a very characteristic element of the province, especially in the South and the western half. The most frequent are those of the West or West component, and the so-called Levante of East or Southeast component.
The west winds are Atlantic winds from the west and southwest. They are humid and fresh, and they cause precipitations when ascending towards the interior forced by the relief when condensing the humidity that they bring from the sea.
The easterly wind originates in the Saharan depression, being therefore warm and dry, since it is a very limited route over the sea. This wind passes quite strongly through the area of the Strait, acting as a funnel, causing significant acceleration and extraordinary turbulence with average speeds of 36 km / h and gusts that reach up to 150 km / h. It produces humidity and mists in the sierras of Campo de Gibraltar, but when it loses moisture, it soon becomes very desiccant.
As a summary of the above, the climate of the province of Cádiz is classified within the Mediterranean type, with four variants depending on the geographical location:
- Oceanic ocean
- Mediterranean semi continental with warm summers
- Subtropical Mediterranean
- Mediterranean semi continental of cold winters